● Charged human body – The human body may be charged due to walking or other movements. If the discharge from the human body is via a metal object such as a tool, the ESD damage will be particularly serious.
● Cables that are pulled over the carpet – If a live cable is plugged into a conductive contact with any source of charge, an ESD transient can be generated.
Carrying a polyethylene bag – When an electronic device slides into or out of a bag or pipe, an electrostatic charge can be generated because the device's outer casing and/or metal leads are in multiple contact and separation from the surface of the container.
ESD events are related to the environment in which electronic devices operate. Transient environments vary widely, and there are significant differences between automotive systems, airborne or shipborne equipment, space systems, industrial equipment, or consumer products. The mobile device is used frequently, making it very likely that the user will touch the I/O connector pins during the connection or disconnection of the cable. Under normal operating conditions, touching an exposed port or interface may result in a discharge voltage exceeding 30 kV.
Small-sized semiconductor devices may be damaged by excessive voltage, high current levels, or a combination of both, high voltage levels may cause gate oxide breakdown, and excessive current may cause junction failure and metallized trace melting .